Research Justification Report


https://docs.google.com/a/s2013.sst.edu.sg/document/d/19yr93rX5GZdzm3oyHl_7UaYEDlYBNlGcrJkQvHgnK9g/edit

01 Introduction

  What we are discussing about would be the sustainability of the water source in Singapore. We have chosen this area as Water is a necessity of our lives, and as many of us know, Singapore has been importing water from Johor, Malaysia, under two bilateral agreements. The first agreement expired in August 2011 and second agreement will expire in 2061. So by 2061 , will we be able to have enough sources of clean water for us to use? Hence we chose this topic to further research about.

 Manageability of the research
-  The timeline for the different components of the project will be decided later based on the situation then. But overall, As Water is a big topic , the project will be done as carefully and detailed as we can, and try our best not to go out of point and staying as close to the topic as possible. 

 -We don’t anticipate any problems that might happen along the way as our group is very cooperative and is able to work well.When tasks are assigned to each team member, he will go and upload his findings and his part of the project onto our blog. Each person would be assigned something to do so that no one would be left out or be said as the sleeping member. 

 Accessibility of the information required
Information/knowledge that will be relevant to our research would be Singapore being self-dependant in the future in terms of having clean water to drink?


 We will be obtaining this information from primary and secondary sources, depending on which one gives more reliable and useful information. We can go to the government website, www.pub.gov.sg  to gather more information regarding water sources and water scarcity in Singapore this date. 




 02 Literature Review 

 (http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/freshwater-crisis/) states that Freshwater makes up a very small fraction of all water on the planet. While nearly 70 percent of the world is covered by water, only 2.5 percent of it is fresh. The rest is saline and ocean-based. Even then, just 1 percent of our freshwater is easily accessible, which most of it is trapped in glaciers and snowfields. In essence, only 0.007 percent of the planet's water is available to fuel and feed Earth’s 6.8 billion people .  and since singapore does not have any natural water sources, we have to rely on Local catchment, Imported water( mostly from malaysia ) , Newater and desalinated water. Since only 0.007% of the planet water is available along with the rising population on earth , it is most likely that in the near future malaysia will stop providing water to us , so how will we survive? Well we went on to research what the problem was , and from one of our sources , https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/ethos/Issue%202%20Apr%202007/Pages/Water-Management-in-Singapore.aspx It is stated that Singapore is a water scarce country not due to lack of rainfall, which was approximately 2,400 millimetres/year But due to the limited amount of land area that we can store the water, Singapore cannot collect all of the water from the rainfall. One main reason for Singapore's success in managing its water resources is its concurrent emphasis on supply and demand management, including wastewater and stormwater management; institutional effectiveness; and an enabling environment which includes a strong political will, effective legal and regulatory frameworks, and an experienced and motivated workforce.
However it might not be able to maintain for the next decade if Malaysia cuts it contract with us today.

However, Singapore too is trying to prepare for the day Malaysia stops importing water to us. The government website of Singapore, PUB Website, states that Singapore, throughout the years are trying to increase the amount of clean water sources they have. An example being the creation of desalination plants throughout Singapore to filter seawater into clean water that can be used by we Singaporeans.


 03 Methodology

    Our method we have used to get our accurate results was to Interview people from different backgrounds, etc. (politicians , passerby, students and teachers) This way , the results we gather will be more reliable .Also , this allows us to have a better view of what most people prefer or reacts to the situation and to see how much awareness do the people in singapore have upon the subject. We will also be planning to search online and to libraries to research and find out the ways that are already existing to sustain singapore in terms of water supply as well as the other possible methods to increase the amount of water supply . With the help of The Interviews and Research information, we would be able to see and find out the challenges of getting sustainable drinking water in Singapore, and further research to find ways to counter it.

  We would also have surveys conducted to gather information of what students in our school think about our research and the research topic. Not only that, we would also read up information from books in the library and search up online for more information about the sustainability of water in Singapore. We will also be looking at how other country are reacting to the situation and their ways of reducing water and methods for renewable water.


Interview / Survey Questions

1. Besides Local Catchment and NEWater, what could Singapore implement to increase our water supply?

2. Which of the 4 national Water taps do you think is the most reliable?

3. How long do you think Singapore can sustain itself in terms of having clean water to drink?

4. An example of a local catchment is Bukit Timah Reservoir, do you agree that it is a sustainable water source?

5. What challenges do you think Singapore will face when the contract with Malaysia expires? (2061)

______________________________________________

Extra

6.Do u think Singapore will introduce new method and new technology to increase the water sources?

7..Can people adapt to the new water source in terms of money?

9. Do you think Singapore is doing anything to solve the problem of sustainable water too?



Research

> books (library)
> Pdf and slides on water
> Websites (PUB)
04 RESULTS
 (STUDENTS)


1. Enlarge the area of water catchment


 2. Imported water 

3. 100 years

4. It  depends on the rain level in Singapore which is not predictable , hence it is not predictable . Therefore it is not a reliable source

5. People would loose the security that Singapore has a Secure water source, hence people would start saving water

05 Discussion

During Integrated humanities lessons last year , we were taught about the 4 National Taps, Mainly Newater, Imported Water, Desalination plants and Local Catchment. We were also taught about the scarcity of water. Therefore, Singapore has to conserve water as much as possible so that we would not run out of water. So we decided to discuss on how long Singapore could rely on these 4 water taps . After much discussion , we decided that importing water was not reliable hence we crossed it out of the taps we were going to research on. Importing water is not reliable as the others as the contract with malaysia would expire eventually or be cancelled anytime Malaysia wished to. 
In our discussion,we finally came to a conclusion that Singapore’s National taps would be able to sustain singapore for a certain period of time , not forever. After considering these questions , we decided to come out with our research question ,

<Challenges of getting sustainable drinking water in Singapore>

06 Conclusions 

Based on our groups findings which we obtained from the results of the data collection (Surveys conducted among the students of SST), we can deduce that most people thinks that water is an important resource that is slowly fading and can last us for 40 - 50 years.. We can also deduce that people think that Desalination is the most reliable of all 4 national taps. This is because people think that importing water is not reliable due to the contract ending soon, Newater as it is only able to provide a little amount of water , and further more, because it is ultra clean, NEWater is ideal for industry use, such as wafer fabrication processes. NEWater is supplied to wafer fabrication, electronics and power generation industries for process use as well as commercial and institutional complexes for air-con cooling purposes.Lastly ,  local catchment is reliable as it relies on rain which in the recent weeks , Singapore is lacking. 

Most people also believe that the government will not leave singapore to dry and will do something to help them , like building more desalination plants or local catchments. This shows that they believe in Singapore able to make it through the crisis in 50 years.  

06 Bibliography
http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/freshwater-crisis/
-Water self-sufficientcy
-How Singapore is making sure it does not run out of water ? http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/04/07/singapore.water.dilemma/
-Water Sources
-A pdf file with pictures about Singapore

- What Singapore did to manage the supply and demand of water in the country

- Singapore's Water Story and their water sources (Outdated. From 2009)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_scarcity

07 Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all the students in SST who took the time off their busy schedule to help us in answering our IRS surveys that was sent to everyone and thus allowing us to collect enough data. 

We would also like to thank our teacher, Ms Ong who guided us through many different obstacles we had while doing this IRS project. The help she gave was beyond comparison as she gave us direct and detailed versions of the report . Without her help we would not have succeeded . Thank you so much.

We give thanks to our group members too , for the hard work and wonderful cooperation and their hard work placed in this IRS report.

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